Genesis of Statistical Organisation in Bihar dates back to pre-independence, When Agriculture Statistical Organization was set up under the Revenue Department. An independent Bureau of Economics & Statistics was established under the control of Finance Department in 1949.  Agriculture Statistical Organisation was merged with Bureau of Economic and Statistics to create the Directorate under the Finance Department. The Evaluation Organisation established in 1957 under Rural Reconstruction Department was also merged in the Directorate in 1964 and was renamed as Directorate of Statistics & Evaluation, which later on came under the administrative control of the Planning and Development Department in 1969. In yet another restructuring Evaluation wing was separated and it was brought to be present nomenclature as the Directorate of Economics and Statistics in 2009 .It is nodal agency of the State Government for all statistics work in the State and has to co-ordinate with the various Ministries in the Centre.

This Directorate has its own budget head and the Director has the status of the head of the Government Department and is controller of the Directorate budget. The government of India has recognised the Directorate as nodal department in pursuit of statistical data.